Any stagnant body of water such as a pond needs to be aerated in order for it to remain a healthy habitat for fish and plants. Whilst the water in a pond is static, only the water at the surface has any interaction with air and that means that the pond will become layered with oxygenated water at the top and unhealthy un-oxygenated water below. In order for fish life to thrive they need oxygen in the water and as the lower layer becomes larger, the fish will start to die off. The un-oxygenated water at the bottom is also ideal for the growth of algae and as the algae thrives, the pond will start to give off what many consider an unhealthy odour and the pond will also start to become unsightly.
To avoid such a situation occurring in the pond you have on your property, you will need to buy a pond aeration system of some kind. There are several types of pond aerator available today and although all of them are efficient in their own way, it is important that you get the one which is right for your pond. Perhaps the most important factor when deciding on which aerator to buy is the depth of your pond. If your pond is less than 6 feet deep there are a variety of surface aerators available but if the pond is deeper, a diffused aeration system will be required in order to be fully effective in aerating the whole pond.
Surface aerators have several types and perhaps one of the most impressive is a fountain. With a fountain pulling up water from the pond and then throwing it in the air, it ensures that all the water in the pond interacts with the air regularly and therefore gets aerated. This type of aeration system is obviously popular because it can add to the beauty of the pond but is only effective as an aerator for shallower ponds. Propeller aerators churn up the water and thereby increase the amount of interaction between the water and the air, aerating the pond. Obviously for any type of aeration system, some type of power is needed and if your pond is located well away from an electrical source that could be a problem. For those that do have ponds located more remotely or, for those that are just interested in saving power, there are windmill aeration systems available.
For deeper ponds diffused aeration systems are needed and these consist of three parts, a diffuser, a compressor and an air line connecting the two. The diffuser is placed at the bottom of the pond and the compressor is placed at the side of the pond, on dry land. As the diffusor releases the air it receives from the compressor, that air travels up to the surface, interacting with the water and aerating it as it goes. If a diffused aeration system is required for a more remote pond, there are solar kits available which can operate the system for up to 3 days without sunlight.